Monday, August 24, 2020
Medication Free Workplace Campaign - Essay Example Through this order, the administration has charged managers to authorize the medication laws and expect workers to take the medication test. The administration has additionally required its own work power, temporary workers and transport utilities to experience the equivalent. The 1977 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (no most recent information accessible) demonstrated that 47% of respondents said their managers agree to sedate testing. This report appeared upwards of 50 million medication tests are played out each year in the US, creating income of $1.5 billion. A few organizations have acknowledged medication free working environment as an investment funds in its financial sense, albeit direct advantage relations can't be shown up at. For example, elaws, in 2008 report, noticed that in the wake of executing a medication free work environment, Warner Corp. a little pipes organization in Washington, has spared $485,000 in one year. The organization has credited this reserve funds from a reduction number of mishaps in the work environment coming about to bring down vehicle protection premium and lower workerÃ¢â¬â¢s remuneration cost. The medication free environment in the organization has likewise pulled in candidates and disciples that has given the organization extra reserve funds. Bosses who credited to this strategy saw an exceptional effectiveness increment in the work environment. The US Dept. of Labor said that as per the American Management Association, that because of expanded mindfulness on tranquilize testing, human asset administrators have evaluated seen viability from Ã¢â¬Å"50 percent in 1987 to 90 percent in 1996Ã¢â¬ . Jacob Sultum, in a 2002 report, said that, thinking back to the 1990s when the report about the scourge of medication maltreatment on America came out, businesses got terrified and began considering drug testing. They don't need some insane individuals in the organization doing calamity and murdering somebody Medication testing brings about some cost both for the business and the representatives. In 1995, the normal yearly expense for organization supported testing for a worker is $26.59 and for $21.47 for
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Each and everybody of us has a story to advise and share to other people, biographies that may fill in as a motivation to others. Each individual may have a beneficial encounter or a second in their life that by one way or another extraordinarily influences as long as they can remember. We regularly share our own triumphs and travails, our triumphs and annihilations, our joy and hopelessness that carry modifications to the current life circumstances. My story started as a standard kid in the territory of Ferndale, Michigan. I am the most youthful of five kin, a child of Sazelia and Marvin Johnson. My mom was a college lady who attempts to gain a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s qualification in Business at the University of Michigan. My dad was a Mechanical Engineer who is profoundly intrigued with vehicles. My folks are scholarly and social animals who went down the basic estimations of difficult work, training and religion to their kids. They ensure that we are not denied of the fundamental things that we need in our instruction. They additionally give significant mentalities and moral guidelines required in adjusting admirably to our social condition. My kin and I experienced childhood in glad and complete family that maintains training as the principle key to progress. Be that as it may, I was not quite the same as my kin for they all set off for college, explicitly to University of Michigan, in the wake of graduating in secondary school. Every one of them went to the college, aside from our most seasoned sibling, the talented one on us all, who went directly to Naval Academy. The groundbreaking second in my life, happen when I concluded that I need to join the military. I truly need to be a piece of the military holds so I join the U. S. Naval force, wherein I scored high on the selection test and I was offered to experience the U. S. Naval force Nuclear Engineering Program. The pivotal eight months trailed I joined the program. I learned as much as Possible about Chemistry, Math, Electronics, Physics, Reactor Science and other related field in atomic designing. I can contrast this experience and the experience told in Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s, An Episode of War. Much the same as the lieutenant who is injured in war, my own preparation in the program and in the camp gave me certainty and pride. It uncovered the substance of my reality and the entirety of my commonplace wants. It elucidates the reason for my being and my association and job in safeguarding the power of my own nation (Crane 8). Fortunately, I was not associated with any war clashes or that will make my story all the more energizing. Be that as it may, I was in planning part of our barrier framework. In any case, I identify to the individuals who are sent to remote spots to fight with siblings that were viewed as enemies and mavericks by the administration. I realize how hard it very well may be. A large number of us trust that it at long last closures. Much the same as on the sonnet of Czeslaw Milosz, trusting that the injuries, war and different types of contention and misconception will at long last meet its decision. Our history is portrayed and implanted with grievous occasions and debates that took numerous lives (Milosz 256). Peruse more:Ã Happiest Moments Essay Leo TolstoyÃ¢â¬â¢s War and Peace, clearly delineated the occasions in a war. How fruitful grounds became battlegrounds of two incredible powers. How honest lives are radically associated with the contention. How kids were isolated to their folks and how the once glad and productive country changed into a vain land. In the wake of finishing the learning recommended by the program, I was doled out to an atomic submarine, USS Kentucky SSBN 737. The submarine is a gigantic structure that is like a submerged city. My preparation obtained from the program appears to be an inadequate arrangement to the undertaking that I was appointed to. I was an atomic plant administrator that had a huge measure of obligation. I need to ensure that the atomic reactor was constantly sheltered and in great condition and running easily. My undertaking is urgent for it influences the security of my companions. During that time that I have worked for the U. S. Naval force, I got US$50,000 or so worth of legitimate science preparing and training in atomic science and innovation. It is beyond what anybody can request. It is such a gift to anybody to have the option to concentrate free. Likewise, I have obtained certifications to work in most atomic force plants in the country. It is one of the lofty works in the nation to have the option to work in a top of the line office like an atomic force plant, wherein proficient people are just fit for taking care of the particular errand of keeping up the wellbeing of the atomic reactor. The instruction, preparing and working experience is a something significant for me, a conventional kid who just fantasy about being a G. I. Joe, motivated by my toy officers and toy weapons. My encounters during my support of the military were extremely productive and satisfying. I appreciated the greater part of my time under the submarine carrying out my responsibility. It incredibly modifies and impacts my current character. I have gone in numerous spots and met numerous individuals everywhere throughout the United States that contribute on my lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s venture. I essentially figured out how to begin and finish something. My administration in the Navy closes, however I am more than prepared to begin another excursion in this life of mine. I attempt to obtain a bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s certificate in Architecture, something that I needed to achieve. From Southwestern College, I moved to USC this tumble to finish my degree. An incredible section in the Navy, I will have the option to think back and be pleased to state that I was a piece of something uncommon and respectable.
Tuesday, July 21, 2020
Signs That You're In a Healthy Relationship Relationships Spouses & Partners Print How to Know If You Are In a Healthy Relationship By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Reviewed by Reviewed by Amy Morin, LCSW on January 23, 2020 facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our Wellness Board Amy Morin, LCSW on January 23, 2020 Hinterhaus Productions/Getty Images More in Relationships Spouses & Partners Marital Problems LGBTQ Violence and Abuse In This Article Table of Contents Expand Characteristics of Healthy Relationships Signs of Problems How to Build a Healthier Relationship When to Seek Help View All Back To Top Relationships are an important part of a healthy life. Research has consistently shown that social connections are critical for both mental and physical health. People who have healthy relationships have better health outcomes, are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors, and have a decreased risk of mortality. ?? For example, research has shown that people in secure romantic relationships have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease.?? It is important to remember that there is no such thing as a perfect relationship. Every relationship has a mix of both healthy and unhealthy characteristics. What makes a bond positive is that each person recognizes that these bonds take work and each person must strive to maintain the connection and remedy problems. People often spend a lot of time talking about how to spot a bad relationship, but there is a lot less discussion about what exactly constitutes a healthy relationship. How can you know if your relationship is healthy and what can you do to make an okay relationship even better? Questions to Ask Yourself Do you have trust in one another?Do you respect each other?Do you support each otherâs interests and efforts?Are you honest and open with each other?Are you able to maintain your individual identity?Do you talk about your feelings, hopes, fears, and dreams?Do you feel and express fondness and affection?Is there equality and fairness in your relationship? Every personâs needs are different. For example, some people have higher needs for openness and affection than others do. In a healthy relationship, each person is able to get what they need. Characteristics of Healthy Relationships While all relationships are different, there are some key characteristics that help differentiate a healthy interpersonal connection from an unhealthy one. Trust Trust in your partner is a key component of any healthy relationship. Research suggests that your ability to trust others is influenced by your overall attachment style.?? Relationships experienced early in life help shape the expectations that you have for future relationships. If your past relationships have been secure, stable, and trusting, you are more likely to trust future partners as well. If, however, your past relationships were unstable and undependable, you may have to work through some trust issues going forward. Trust is also established by how partners treat one another. When you see that your partner treats you well, is dependable, and will be there when you need them, you are more likely to develop this trust. Building trust requires mutual self-disclosure by sharing things about yourself. As time passes, opportunities to test and evaluate that trust emerge. As trust grows, the relationship becomes a great source of comfort and security. If you feel that you have to hide things from your partner, it may be because you lack this essential trust. Openness and Honesty You should be able to feel that you can be yourself in a healthy relationship. While all couples have varying levels of openness and self-disclosure, you should never feel like you have to hide aspects of yourself or change who you are. Being open and honest with each other not only helps you feel more connected as a couple, but it also helps foster trust. Self-disclosure refers to what you are willing to share about yourself with another person. At the beginning of a relationship, you may hold back and exercise more caution about what you are willing to reveal. Over time, as the intimacy of a relationship increases, partners begin to reveal more of their thoughts, opinions, beliefs, interests, and memories to one another. This doesnât mean that you need to share every single thing with your partner. Each individual needs their own privacy and space. What matters most is whether each partner feels comfortable sharing their hopes, fears, and feelings if they so choose. Healthy couples dont need to be together all the time or share everything. Differences in opinion over how much honesty there should be in a relationship can sometimes cause problems, however. Fortunately, one study found that when people are unhappy with their partnerâs level of openness, they typically discuss the problem with their partner.?? This is a good example of how addressing a problem openly can help strengthen a relationship. While your partner may have different needs than you, it is important to find ways to compromise while still maintaining your own boundaries. Boundaries are not about secrecy; they establish that each person has their own needs and expectations. Healthy boundaries in a relationship allow you to still do the things that are important to you, such as going out with friends and maintaining privacy, while still sharing important things with your partner. A partner who has unhealthy expectations of openness and honesty might expect to know every detail of where you are and what youre doing, restrict who you can spend time with, or demand access to your personal social media accounts. Why Self-Disclosure Is Important In Relationships Mutual Respect In close, healthy relationships, people have a shared respect for one another. They dont demean or belittle one another and offer support and security. There are a number of different ways that couples can show respect for one another. These include: Listening to one anotherNot procrastinating when your partner asks you to do somethingBeing understanding and forgiving when one person makes a mistakeBuilding each other up; not tearing each other downMaking room in your life for your partnerTaking an interest in the things your partner enjoysAllowing your partner to have their own individualitySupporting and encouraging your partnerâs pursuits and passionsShowing appreciation and gratitude for one anotherHaving empathy for one another Affection Healthy relationships are characterized by fondness and affection. Research has shown that the initial passion that marks the start of a new relationship tends to decline over time?? , but this does not mean that the need for affection, comfort, and tenderness lessens. Passionate love usually happens during the beginning of a relationship and is characterized by intense longing, strong emotions, and a need to maintain physical closeness. This passionate love eventually transforms into compassionate love, which is marked by feelings of affection, trust, intimacy, and commitment. While those intense early feelings eventually return to normal levels, couples in healthy relationships are able to build progressively deeper intimacy as the relationship progresses. However, it is important to remember that physical needs are different for each individual. There is no ârightâ amount of affection or intimacy. The key to a healthy relationship is that both partners are content with the level of affection that they share with their partner. A nurturing partnership is characterized by genuine fondness and affection for one another that is expressed in a variety of ways. Compassionate and Passionate Love Good Communication Healthy, long-lasting relationships, whether they are friendships or romantic partnerships, require the ability to communicate well. One study found that a couples communication style was more important than stress, commitment, and personality in predicting whether married couples would eventually divorce.?? While it might seem like the best relationships are those that donât involve conflict, knowing how to argue and resolve differences of opinion effectively is more important than simply avoiding arguments in order to keep the peace. Sometimes conflict can be an opportunity to strengthen a connection with your partner. Research has shown that conflict can be beneficial in intimate relationships when serious problems need to be addressed, allowing partners to make changes that benefit the future of the relationship.?? When conflicts do arise, those in healthy relationships are able to avoid personal attacks. Instead, they remain respectful and empathetic of their partner as they discuss their thoughts and feelings and work toward a resolution. Give-and-Take Strong relationships are marked by natural reciprocity. It isnât about keeping score or feeling that you owe the other person. You do things for one another because you genuinely want to. This doesnât mean that the give-and-take in a relationship is always 100% equal. At times, one partner may need more help and support. In other cases, one partner may simply prefer to take more of a caregiver role. Such imbalances are fine as long as each person is ok with the dynamic and both partners are getting the support that they need. Signs of Problems Relationships can change over time and not every relationship is 100% healthy all the time. Times of stress, in particular, can lead to unhealthy behaviors and coping mechanisms that can create problems. A relationship is unhealthy when the bad outweighs the good or when certain behaviors are harmful to one or both individuals. Feeling pressured to change who you areNeglecting your own needs to put your partner firstBeing pressured to quit the things you enjoyLack of privacy or pressure to share every detail of your life with your partnerUnequal control over shared resources including money and transportationAttempts to control your behaviors Criticizing what you do, who you spend time with, how you dress, etc.Being afraid to share your opinions or thoughtsPoor communicationLack of fairness when settling conflictsFeeling that spending time together is an obligationAvoiding one anotherYellingPhysical violence Some problems may be temporary and something that you can address together, either through self-help methods or by consulting a mental health professional. When it comes to more serious problems, such as abusive behaviors, your primary concern should be on maintaining your safety and security. How to Build a Healthier Relationship Toxic behaviors are often a sign that an unhealthy relationship should end. For other problems, there are many ways to fix weaknesses and build a healthier relationship. Some steps you can take to make your relationship stronger: Show Appreciation Couples who feel gratitude for one another feel closer to one another and tend to be more satisfied with their relationships. One study published in the journal Personal Relationships found that showing gratitude for a partner can be an important way to boost satisfaction in romantic relationships.?? Another study found that feeling gratitude for a romantic partner was a predictor of whether a relationship would last.?? Keep Things Interesting Keeping up with the daily grind of work and kids can sometimes cause couples to fall into the same old routine. Boredom can lead to greater dissatisfaction as a relationship goes on. Researchers have found, for example, that couples who reported feeling bored in the seventh year of their relationship were more likely to experience marital dissatisfaction nine years later.?? So what are some things that you can do to keep the romance alive over the long-term?Make time for one another; schedule in dates or set aside time each week to focus on one anotherTry new things together; take a class or try a new hobby that you can both enjoyBreak out of the same old routine; Find time for intimacy When to Seek Help All relationships are going to have their bumps in the road. Conflicts over finances, the challenges of parenting, and other differences can all create ups and downs in a long-term relationship. Even if you and your partner have a healthy relationship most of the time, problems might sometimes arise that might benefit from professional help. If you feel like your relationship might benefit from outside help, consider talking to a counselor or therapist. A mental health professional skilled in addressing interpersonal and relationship issues can help you both learn to communicate, listen, and cope with some of the issues that might be challenging your relationship. It is important to remember that you cannot force someone to change their behavior unless they want to. If your partner is not interested or willing in going to counseling, go on your own and focus on your own needs and wellness. Work on building your social support system outside of the relationship and consider ending a relationship if it is ultimately unhealthy. A Word From Verywell Even if your relationship seems healthy, it can be helpful at times to step back and look for improvements you can make together. Healthy relationships are marked by an ability to recognize problems, including your own, that might pose a threat to the long-term success of your relationship. By being willing to analyze your relationship, you can work together to build a more fulfilling partnership. An Overview of Relationship Counseling
Friday, May 22, 2020
The passage from The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle by Tobias Smollett explores the overwhelming love of a brother and a lover as well as the other emotions that come with that love as they fight with words and sword over their love, Emilia. Mr. Pickle is in love with Emilia and is speaking with Godfrey Gauntlet who is the brother of Emilia. Through the strong dialogue between characters and the pacing of their battles, time is given to build up stronger characters and inform us of the deeper emotions connecting the two. Godfrey is the first to speak, with dialogue starting immediately, demanding of Mr. Pickle what his objective is with his sister. Mr. Pickle responds with a question regarding why he should tell Mr. Gauntlet, knowing fullÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The formal tone used in the words between them creates arrogance and a sarcastic tone, especially by Mr. Pickle. The use of such words prompts a deeper look at the dialogue and slows the reader down. The second battle between them has a much faster pacing with many of the next sentences dealing with the preparation of battle and the taunts by Mr. Godfrey of being an expert swordsman. It explains that Godfrey would have used pistols which would be potentially more lethal than swords had Mr. Pickle not made his studies in science. The sword fight ends shortly after Mr. Godfrey draws first blood and Mr. Pickle becomes overzealous and over thrusts resulting in the shattered sword and a win for Godfrey. The quick pacing makes it seem as if t here is no match for Godfrey and that a fight with him is not to be taken lightly. However, Godfrey is a respectful man who will not take a manÃ¢â¬â¢s life for granted despite his emotions getting the better of him when speaking with Mr. Pickle. Godfrey exits to leave Peregrine to reflect and Godfrey to have respect and dignity for another day. The narrative pace really emphasizes the fact that Mr. PickleÃ¢â¬â¢s character is that of a scientist and not that of a sword fighter while Godfrey is rather adept at fighting. His dialogue is sometimes ended with the word Ã¢â¬Å"soldierÃ¢â¬ letting us know background information and his taunt of being an expert sword fighter in the army could actuallyShow MoreRelatedThe Rise of the Novels in the Eighteenth Century4179 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesincluded among the masters of eighteenth-century novel; but, as Hudson points out, it must be distinctly understood that his work is on a much lower level than theirs. His novels are of the picaresque kind, and includeÃ Roderick RandomÃ (1748),Ã Peregrine PickleÃ (1751), andHumphrey ClinkerÃ (1771). Smollett was a realist and had his own art of racy narrative and eye-catching description. He was a keen observer of the coarser facts of life, particularly naval life. He exulted in coarseness and brutalityRead MoreDavid Copperfield934 9 Words Ã |Ã 38 PagesDavid Copperfield by Charles DickensÃ¢â¬ ¦. Analysis by: Shrook Essam El-Din Table of Contents: a- Abstract . b- Charles Dickens life . c- Similarity between Charles childhood and David Copperfield . d- Autobiographical Elements of David Copperfield . e- Plot summary . f- Major themes . g- List of references . a- Abstract : David Copperfield captured the hearts and imagination of generations of readers since the day of its publication. Charles Dickens chose the mainRead MoreVarian Solution153645 Words Ã |Ã 615 PagesCarroll (1832-1898), author of Alice in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, was a mathematician, logician, and political scientist. Carroll loved careful reasoning about puzzling things. Here CarrollÃ¢â¬â¢s Alice presents a nice bit of economic analysis. At Ã¯ ¬ rst glance, it may seem that Alice is talking nonsense, but, indeed, her reasoning is impeccable. Ã¢â¬Å"I should like to buy an egg, please.Ã¢â¬ she said timidly. Ã¢â¬Å"How do you sell them?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Fivepence farthing for oneÃ¢â¬âtwopence for two,Ã¢â¬ the Sheep replied
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Bullying: 1. I read the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Jury Orders School District to Pay $800,000 to Bullied Student. Ã¢â¬ This article was about a boy named Dane Patterson, who had been bullied all through middle school and his early high school career. We will write a custom essay sample on Bullying in School or any similar topic only for you Order Now He claims that the school failed to protect him from years of bullying, and it finally came to be enough when he was sexually harassed in the locker room. As a result to this, the Patterson family filed a lawsuit under Title IX of the Equal Opportunity in Education Act, using the sexual harassment story as the basis.This week, the jury ordered the school district to pay Dane $800,000 to make up for the damages and trauma caused by the ongoing situation. Anti-bullying experts argue that this verdict will send a clear message to schools that they are in fact responsible for sexual harassment and bullying, and that they must keep a constant eye out for such behavior. 2. In my opinion, I do not think schools should be held fully responsible for bullying.I think that maybe they should make more of an effort to prevent it, but there is no way they can take care of all the bullying issues that happen in school. For example, some kids donÃ¢â¬â¢t even make an effort to ask for help, or let anyone know they are being bullied, so the school shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be held accountable for a situation they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t even aware is occurring to begin with. In DaneÃ¢â¬â¢s situation however, I believe the school should be held responsible because he clearly asked for help and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive any, and this had been going on since middle school!I think that schools should be fully accountable only if the child seeks out help numerous times and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t receive it, or if the school doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do everything in their power to make the bullying go away. On the other hand, there are some situations which the school cannot control, like I said in the first example; if that is the case, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe the school should be held responsible. 3. I believe that the parents of the bullyÃ¢â¬â¢s should be held at least somewhat responsible for their childÃ¢â¬â¢s actions because then they could stop the bullying before it gets out of control.Ultimately, schools are responsible for keeping an eye out on bullying and regulating the behavior, but there are some cases in which they just cannot control, therefore they shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be held responsible. Obesity: 1. For obesity, I read the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Pepsi Initiates Move to Pull Sugared Soft Drinks from Schools in 200 Countries. Ã¢â¬ This article was about PepsiCo IncÃ¢â¬â¢s announcement, as of Tuesday of this week, about how they planning to remove all of their full-calorie sweetened soft drinks from schools in more than 200 countries by the year 2012 to reduce the trend of obesity.The article also mentions that earlier this month, Coca-Cola made a similar announcement, but they feel they should only eliminate soft drink sales from schools only if parents make a re quest. Of course, both companies realize that eliminating soft drinks will not end the rising trend of childhood obesity, but they believe that learning better eating and drinking habits in schools are certainly a step in the right direction. 2. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think that schools should be held accountable for obesity in any sense.Schools should strive to sell healthier food, but they are not the cause of obesity. The school is not responsible for the amount of food a child buys, so schools should not be responsible for obesity. 3. In my opinion, obesity is more caused by eating habits in life outside of school, such as home or going out and getting fast food all the time. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s even genetic. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t believe schools should be responsible for obesity because the child controls their own eating habits, not the school. How to cite Bullying in School, Papers Bullying in School Free Essays string(121) " climate are expected to influence bullying behaviors, separate and distinct from generally reducing student aggression\." Bullying is now recognized as a common form of victimization on American school campuses and a significant school safety problem (Nansel et al. , 2001). This special issue of School Psychology Review provides thoughtful conceptual and practical information for school psychologists, who can play a central role in the schoolsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to this growing concern about school bullying. We will write a custom essay sample on Bullying in School or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this paper, I review and expand on topics discussed, particularly as they relate to the American school context. Reaching a national consensus on school bullying represents a significant challenge that will require balancing needs across researchers, educators, and public policy makers. Whatever the effectiveness of specific bully prevention programs, the national effort to minimize the negative effects of bullying will need to address fundamental matters related to the definition of school bullying and the translation of best research practices into public policy and educational practice at the school site level. I suggest that clarity on matters of definition is of the utmost importance. First, it is needed for the scientific purpose of having precision in what is being studied. Second, it is needed because a lack of a common understanding about what constitutes bullying could result in a confusing array of national, state, and local policies and responses to the problems created by bullying. Introduction Contributions of Special Issue Articles Espelage and Swearer Espelage and Swearer (2003) set the stage for other contributors to this volume with their thorough review of bullying literature. They effectively argue that bullying research has reached a critical stage where future investigations should capitalize on the lessons learned about the definition and measurement of bullying, the nature of gender differences, and the varied topography of the bully-victim relationship. They set forward the challenge of how best to define and measure bullying; the extent of that challenge was demonstrated by the varied definitions and methods of articles in this special issue. Perhaps most important is the vision that pushes researchers in this area to recognize the importance of contexts; for example, familial, peer, school structures as determinants, correlates, and perpetuators of bullying behavior. Whereas improved definitions and measurements of bullying will help define the individual behavior, determining the contextual influences will require careful and creative research methodologies. Rodkin and Hodges Rodkin and Hodges (2003) frame their discussion of bullying in the context of peer ecology and school culture. In particular, their emphasis on identifying and understanding Ã¢â¬Å"popular bulliesÃ¢â¬ takes an important step toward the recognition that not all bullies fit the profile of children who are socially marginalized or deviant. Rodkin and HodgesÃ¢â¬â¢s article discusses a type of bully who is well-liked among his or her peer group and is thus better able to attract others to engage in their bullying behaviors. These discussions emphasize the complex influence of peer ecology, the diversity of children who engage in bullying, and varying motivations and functions that bullying may serve. Although there are many popular students in school, only a select few use their popularity as a platform for bullying other students. One question that emerges from Rodkin and HodgesÃ¢â¬â¢s article is why some popular students take advantage of the opportunity to bully, but most do not. Long and Pellegrini Long and Pellegrini (2003) add an additional perspective to this bullying issue (i. e. , focus on the dynamism or long-term nature of bullying and dominance). Researchers are often constrained by their research designs and methodologies to characterizing bullying through the use of static, one-time measures. As Espelage and Swearer have noted, an important aspect of bullying is the fact that is occurs repeatedly over a long period of time. Long and Pellegrini suggest that observing or measuring this concept across several years will provide an important perspective about the role of dominance and bullying in group behavior of students in a middle school cohort. They hypothesized that dominance would increase during a time when groups are being formed and then settle once the relationships have been established. These authors demonstrated the use of linear mixed models to track measures of dominance and bullying over time and to determine the conditional effects of gender on change on these concepts. They clearly outline the complex statistical techniques utilized, thereby encouraging the use of such models for future research. Their findings confirmed a pattern of increase, then decrease across time. However, their findings suggested a slight increase for seventh grade students at the end of their school year, perhaps anticipating the need to reestablish relationships in the transition to eighth grade. Overall, dominance and bullying were higher for males. As with other studies in this issue, these results, although demonstrative of the potential utility of change models for explaining bullying, are constrained by the definition of bullying because they relied on student self-definition of Ã¢â¬Å"bullyingÃ¢â¬ behavior. It is very likely that students varied in their conception of Ã¢â¬Å"bullying. Ã¢â¬ Future investigations might include a specific descriptor for this term to ensure that survey responses are valid. Leff, Power, Costigan, and Manz Although much research on bullying has focused on assessment and prevention at the classroom level, the playground and lunchroom are also prime locations for bullying to occur. Left, Power, Costigan, and Manz (2003) explain that bullying often occurs in these settings because of a lack of structured activities and a lack of structured supervision. Left et al. evaluate an assessment tool that is designed for completion by paraprofessionals supervising during lunch and recess. This approach is one that accounts for the context in which bullying often occurs and the school ecology that can contribute to its prevention. Although the data from this study fail to provide information on instances of bullying that occur within the lunchroom and playground contexts, accurate assessment of the school climate in these areas will presumably enhance the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to develop targeted interventions. As there is no definition of bullying provided in this article, future efforts should examine the extent to which changes in lunchroom and playground climate are expected to influence bullying behaviors, separate and distinct from generally reducing student aggression. You read "Bullying in School" in category "Papers" Orpinas, Horne, and Staniszewski Developing empirically validated programs that effectively reduce school bullying is a challenge that many schools face. Orpinas, Home, and Staniszewski (2003) describe the development and evaluation of an innovative program designed to reduce bullying and victimization at the elementary school level. The program discussed is notable for its ability to garner commitment and cooperation from many members of the school community, specifically teachers. The authors identify staff collaboration, in conjunction with the comprehensive approach of the program, as the heart of its success. Although this program is effective at reducing aggression, as it is measured by the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s self-report questionnaire, the program and the assessments used to evaluate the program do not target bullying independently from other forms of peer aggression. The program appears to successfully reduce aggressive behavior, but it is unclear how much of this behavior meets criteria for the hallmarks of bullying: intentionality, power imbalance, and repetition. The commitment and motivation of the school staff participant that was engendered by this approach is admirable and would certainly contribute to a program with the specific aim of reducing bullying behavior, as well. Limber and Small Several state legislatures have enacted laws related to bullying in an attempt to ad dress the perception that bullying is a growing problem in American schools. Limber and Small (2003) review the state laws that have been passed and some of the major issues surrounding bullying legislation. In particular, they note a trend towards defining bullying in conjunction with other types of peer aggression, such as Ã¢â¬Å"harassmentÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"intimidation. Ã¢â¬ By considering these terms as synonymous, Limber and Small suggest that states fail to capture the unique qualities of bullying, potentially resulting in school personnel being confused or misled. Limber and Small offer several recommendations for state legislators, state departments of education, and local policy makers seeking to develop sensitive and appropriate bullying laws. Limber and SmallÃ¢â¬â¢s focus on legislation recognizes the most formalized approach to bullyingÃ¢â¬âone that may mandate state resources. This raises the question: What else are states doing to prevent and intervene with bullying that has not been formalized into legislation? The way that bullying is addressed in schools, by school districts, and by state departments of education is often not reflected in their state laws. In addition, only 15 states have passed legislation, leading to the question of what is happening in the other 35 states. Implications of Special Issue Articles for School Psychology Practice The topic of bullying in American schools was neglected for too long (Espelage Swearer, 2003). This issue affirms the crucial roles that school psychology researchers and practitioners can contribute to future efforts to better understand this phenomenon and to develop evidence-based strategies designed to reduce its incidence and consequences. I suggest that these efforts will move forward most efficiently and effectively if thought is given to carefully defining bullying and to building a national consensus about the nature of this problem. In an effort to be better informed about the actions being taken in the 50 United States to reduce bullying and to build on Limber and SmallÃ¢â¬â¢s (2003) efforts, we turn to a presentation of state-level responses to bullying. The Status of School Bullying Policy and Practice in the United States The analysis of forensic psychologists McGee and Debemardo (1999) helped to popularize the idea that school shooters are awkward adolescents who had past histories of bully victimization and social isolation. Amidst the national angst after the multiple school shootings in the late 1990s, the notion that these youth had been victimized to the point of extreme violence was offered as one explanation for these terrible events. Subsequent analyses (Fein et al. , 2002; OÃ¢â¬â¢Toole, 2000; Vossekuil, Fein, Reddy, Borum, Modzeleski, 2002) have shown this to be a qualified and limited relationship, but they also reinforced the perception that at least some school shooters were bully-victims who acted to avenge long-term peer abuse. Although bully victimization cannot be used with any degree of accuracy to predict school shootings (Reddy et al. , 2001), one potentially positive response to the recognition of this phenomenon is that it modified perceptions that bullying was a relatively innocent rite of youth passage. Instead, bullying is now seen as one set of behaviors that might have deadly consequences. Legislative Responses to School Violence Interestingly, as mentioned by Espelage and Swearer (2003), the motivation to address bullying in Finland (Dan OlweusÃ¢â¬â¢s home) emanated from concern about suicides among bully victims. Similarly, in response to American school shooting tragedies (many of the school shooters also were suicidal), educators and policy makers began to take action (e. g. , California GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s School Violence Task Force, 2000). After years of neglecting the bullying phenomenon, beginning in 1998, states began to pass laws using the term Ã¢â¬Å"bullying. Ã¢â¬ As might be expected, states that have experienced notable school shooting incidents are more likely to have formal school bullying laws than other states. In recent years, a number of states have passed legislation that directly mentions bullying and articulates school responses and disciplinary consequences. Limber and Small (2003) provide an overview and discussion of these legislative responses. In addition to the passage of formal educational laws, various states have responded more informally through the dissemination of resources and training. Although the prevention of school-associated deaths is an essential objective, formal legislative responses can only be as effective as the implementation of bullying prevention and intervention strategies in schools, a topic to which we now turn. State-Level Bullying Practices Unfortunately, in the rush to address the new perceived threat of school shootings, insufficient time was taken to formally define bullying. Consequently, efforts to pass state laws and to implement local policies have had limited coherence (Limber Small, 2003). Many state statues, in fact, do not define Ã¢â¬Å"bullyingÃ¢â¬ other than to use the word itself; others equate it to peer harassment; and yet others include hate crimes of all types including those directed against gay, lesbian, and bisexual students. New Hampshire, for example, actually requires a school employee Ã¢â¬Å"who has witnessed or has reliable information that a pupil has been subjected to insults, taunts, or challenges, whether verbal or physical in nature, which are likely to intimidate or provoke a violent or disorderly response shall report such incident to the principal, or designee who shall in turn report the incident to the superintendentÃ¢â¬ (2001). These codified definitions of bullying are at times inconsistent with international perspectives and research (Espelage Swearer, 2003; Juvonen Graham, 2001; Rigby, in press; Smith et al. , 2002). Summary of State Policy and Practices Formal state legislation. As Limber and Small (2003) reported, 15 states have enacted bullying legislation. When state representatives were asked whether their state had a law addressing bullying, 13 additional representatives wrote that their state legislation addresses bullying, but does not explicitly use the term Ã¢â¬Å"bullying. Ã¢â¬ Instead, bullying behavior is subsumed under the heading of another law (e. g. , harassment, assault, injurious hazing). As Limber and Small discuss, failing to accurately label bullying makes intervening more challenging. Such misunderstandings may also lead to punitive laws, rather than a commitment to supporting and guiding bullies toward change. State definitions of bullying. State definitions of bullying (defined by state law or the state representative) were compared with the primary components of OlweusÃ¢â¬â¢s (1993) definition of bullying. OlweusÃ¢â¬â¢s definition is composed of three primary components: intentionality, an imbalance of power, and repetition. In addition, Olweus (2001) explains that a wide range of behaviors can be considered bullying, including physical aggression, relational aggression, systematic exclusion, and destruction of property. Table 2 includes information for each state law in the following areas: Many Forms of Bullying (the definition of bullying includes more than one type of bullying behavior, physical, verbal), Intentional, Imbalance of Power, and Repetition. In addition, several definitions of bullying specify outcomes of the behavior. To be considered bullying, the behavior may need to disrupt learning or the school environment, cause emotional stress or distress in a victim, or result in physical harm to a student. The number of states that included a discussion of the effect of bullying on victims indicates an increasing awareness of victimsÃ¢â¬â¢ experiences. However, most formalized legislation continues to focus on actions to be taken with bullies, to the exclusion of responding to victims. Although laws in New York and Rhode Island require that schools provide mentors for students concerned about bullying or violence, victim issues and needs are notably absent from most legislation. State-level bullying resources. This special issue is evidence that practitioners and researchers are moving forward in defining bullying and developing targeted evidence-based interventions. Nonetheless, the definitions provided by state legislation and state representatives do not appear to be based in a strong research grounding. Not one of the 15 states that have enacted bullying legislation provides a definition of bullying that includes all components of OlweusÃ¢â¬â¢s definition. Further, none of the other state representatives who provided a definition that was not formalized into legislation cited all aspects of the definition. This disconnect between research and policy leads to questions about the development of legislation. In particular, there may be political pressures from various constituencies that influence the wording and scope of bullying laws. For example, if legislation is partially or primarily a response to media-intensive school violence, as mentioned above, then the most immediate response is likely to be the quick fix (i. e. , punitive and controlling through strict disciplinary provisions). Conclusion Researchers in many countries (e. g. , Finland, England, Canada, and Australia) have intensively focused on the problem of school bullying far longer than those in the United States by seeking an empirically based understanding of bullying (Smith et al. , 2002). As a result, an international dialogue on theories of bullying has accumulated over the years based on careful investigation and intervention. In contrast, the interest in the U. S. on the topic of bullying has been more recent. Now that bullying has passed through a period of awareness building, the time has come to move into a period where research is conducted with more precision and complexity. The clarity provided will support more effective, targeted, evidence-based practice. Ironically, although the U. S. Department of Education has developed a flier (U. S. Department of Education, 1998) with evidence-based definitions and research on bullying, state legislators have produced diverse legislation. According to the U. S. Department of Education, bullying is defined as: Ã¢â¬Å"intentional, repeated hurtful acts, words or other behavior, such as name-calling, threatening and/or shunning committed by one or more children against another. The victim does not intentionally provoke these negative acts, and for such acts to be defined as bullying, an imbalance in real or perceived power must exist between the bully and the victim. Bullying may be physical, verbal, emotional, or sexual in natureÃ¢â¬ (p. 1). This definition is closely aligned with well-accepted research definitions (e. g. , Olweus, 1993), yet state departments of education have not incorporated all components of this definition. One conceptualization of bullying is that of a continuum of verbal and nonverbal aggressive behaviors that are commonly exhibited by students (Espelage Swearer, 2003). At the extreme end of the continuum are behaviors of students who repeatedly victimize other students; their actions are not qualitatively distinct from those of other students on the continuum; they are simply more frequent and persistent. This idea that bullying lies on a continuum and that most students engage in some form of peer victimization suggests that perhaps bullying should be addressed in conjunction with other forms of peer aggression. However, this does not preclude accurately assessing this form of aggressive behavior. For example, a recent study by Solberg and Olweus (2003) indicates that the frequency and duration of victimization has a significant effect on victim outcomes. Specifically, marked negative consequences were found among those students who experienced bullying events two to three times in the previous month. Although the threshold of how Ã¢â¬Å"repetitiousÃ¢â¬ bullying needs to be to have a generalized negative effect on a youth may vary by child, Solberg and OlweusÃ¢â¬â¢s (2003) analysis provides a marker to possibly differentiate general aggression from bullying. In addition, increased precision in defining bullying will affect prevalence research. Among the most commonly cited work on bullying prevalence in American schools is work by Nansel et al. (2001). In their survey, the definition of bullying provided to students included the following statement: Ã¢â¬Å"We say a student is BEING BULLIED when another student, or a group of students, say or do nasty and unpleasant things to him or her. It is also bullying when a student is teased repeatedly in a way he or she doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like. But it is NOT BULLYING when two students of about the same strength quarrel or fightÃ¢â¬ (p. 2095). Failure to specify that bullying is necessarily a pattern of behaviors or a relationship may produce higher prevalence rates and fall short of recognizing the unique functions that bullying serves. Taking a peer-relationship approach to understanding bullying has implications for practice, assessment, and policy. Defining bullying as a specific type of peer aggression will aid in this pursuit. As Limber and Small (2003) discuss, anti-bullying legislation is unfortunately intertwined with definitions and legislation addressing harassment. Harassment is defined as actions that are intended to target a member of a group of identifiable individuals who are protected by state and/or federal antidiscrimination legislation. This confusion and overlap of terms leads to political quarrels that could be avoided if bullying were more precisely defined. For example, although a law requiring school districts to develop policies prohibiting harassment, intimidation, and bullying now exists in the state of Washington, some conservative groups in this state have expressed concerns that anti-bullying laws could infringe on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights to speak freely about their opposition to homosexuality (Zehr, 2001). The question of whether anti-bullying legislation should specifically include a clause protecting identifiable groups (based on characteristics such as sexual orientation) remains a topic of public debate. For example, antibullying legislation in the states of New Jersey and Washington currently incorporates a definition of bullying that includes a clause stating that bullying is motivated by a (real or perceived) distinguishing characteristic. It should be noted that many state antibullying laws do not pertain specifically to Ã¢â¬Å"bullyingÃ¢â¬ ; rather, they often address Ã¢â¬Å"harassment, intimidation, or bullyingÃ¢â¬ or include the term Ã¢â¬Å"hazing. Ã¢â¬ This combination of concepts and terms has repercussions for definitions, community responses, policies, and consequences. A definition of Ã¢â¬Å"bullyingÃ¢â¬ that takes a relational approach has implications for practice, assessment, and policy. Interventions designed for victims of chronic peer aggression will differ from those developed for youth experiencing single or unrelated aggressive acts. If bullying is a relationship, then responses to bullies focus on changing a pattern of behavior and relating. If most aggressive acts are called bullying, it will be more difficult to develop an accurate knowledge base about bullying in American schools. In addition, none of the current definitions of bullying have formally operationalized the essential elements of the bullying definition: imbalance of power (one youth can and is using coercion) and intentionality (the bullying is done purposefully and with the intent to harm). Such information cannot be assessed merely through the self-report of either the bully or the victim because this assessment of necessity involves a reciprocal relationship. One strategy to explore power differences that have been attempted is the use of obvious size differences in stick drawings of possible bullying situations (Smith et al. , 2002). Ultimately, only the bully knows his or her motivation (although they may have rationalized it in a self-supporting manner) and the victim only knows if she or he experienced harm (although even here there may be some forms of denial or self-protective reframing of the experience). On the other hand, bullies and victims may not be the best judges of the motivation of their behavior and the interpretation of their emotional reactions. Cornell and Brockenbrough (in press), for example, found that self-reported bullying and victimization was inconsistent with teacher and other peer ratings of bullying behavior. The teacher and peer ratings were the most consistent and they were better predictors of future school discipline referrals. The findings of this study suggest that teachers and peers may be more objective judges of whether or not a power differential exists between students and if the impact of the bullying behavior was harmful. Even the most basic unanswered bullying research question: Ã¢â¬Å"How prevalent is bullying in American schools? Ã¢â¬ depends completely on how the term bullying is defined. I have suggested that the prevention of the negative consequences of bullying in American schools will be enhanced if researchers, practitioners, and policy makers develop a shared understanding of bullying as a type of school aggression that has unique effects on bullies, victims, and bystanders. It is also necessary to recognize that most youth do not engage in bullying behaviors. Many students are in a position in which they are more powerful than another student and yet they do not abuse this power. Research is needed to better understand what prevents a student from using this power to bully other peers. For research to move forward in determining why many students do not chronically victimize their weaker peers, it is necessary to understand the specific aggressive behaviors of bullies and the functions that they serve. Implications for Bully Prevention Strategies Suggested by Special Issue Articles Community Level Ã¢â¬ ¢ Encourage the adoption of legislation that includes a precise definition of bullying derived from current research (Limber Small) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Definitions of bullying, policy, and legislation should address bullying specifically, as a concept that is distinct from Ã¢â¬Å"harassment,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"hazing,Ã¢â¬ etc. (Espelage Swearer; Limber Small) School-wide Level Ã¢â¬ ¢ Provide trainings for school personnel about bullying and preventing bullying (Limber Small) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Extend training to include school personnel (including para-professionals and volunteers) who supervise students in the lunchroom and on the playground (Leff, Power, Costigan, Manz) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Avoid zero tolerance or punitive consequences in favor of more individualized and guidance oriented responses to student bullies (Limber Small) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Encourage schools to implement evidence-based bullying prevention and intervention programs (Limber Small; Orpinas, Home, Staniszewski) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Include playground and lunchroom contexts as settings for actively assessing and intervening in bullying (Leff, Power, Costigan, Manz) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Develop an awareness of the ways in which the school climate (in various school settings) promotes or discourages aggression and bullying (Left, Power, Costigan, Manz) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognize varying forms of bullying including relational aggression (Espelage Swearer) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Collaborate with all school personnel in developing programs, as their commitment will be integral to the programÃ¢â¬â¢s success (Orpinas, Home, Staniszewski) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Develop school-wide prevention programs that take into account the individual schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s climate and context (Orpinas, Home, Staniszewski) Individual Student Level Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognize the varied social contexts in which bullying may occur and the social status of bullies (Rodkin Hodges) Ã¢â¬ ¢ View bullying from a social-ecological perspective to provide a more enriched and comprehensive understanding of behaviors (Espelage Swearer) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Work to determine the function (social and personal) that bullying weaker students serves for the bully (Rodkin Hodges) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Be cognizant of possible bidirectional influences of family factors in promoting the victim role (Rodkin Hodges) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognize that bullying is part of a dynamic developmental process that should not be taken out of the context of change over time (Long Pelligrini) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognize that as students grow older the influence of opposite-sex peers and heterosexual relationships play an important role in social dominance, particularly for boys (Long Pelligrini) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Recognize that bullies and victims are not dichotomous groups, rather there is a continuum of student involvement in bullying and victimization behaviors (Espelage Swearer) References California GovernorÃ¢â¬â¢s School Violence Task Force. (2000). School violence prevention and response. Sacramento, CA: Author. Retrieved March 29, 2006, from http://www. ocjp. ca. gov/publications/pub%5fschlvio. htm Cornell, D. C. , Brockenbrough, K. (in press). Identification of bullies and victims: A comparison of methods. Journal of School Violence. Espelage, D. L. , Swearer, S. M. (2003). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned and where do we need to go? School Psychology Review, 32, 365-383. Fein, R. , Vossekuil, B. , Pollack, W. , Borum, R. , Modzeleski, W. , Reddy, M. (2002). Threat assessment in schools: A guide to managing threatening situations and to creating safe school climates. U. S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program and U. S. Secret Service, National Threat Assessment Center, Washington, DC. Juvonen, J. , Graham, S. (Eds. ). (2001). Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized. New York: Guilford. Leff, S. , Power, T. , Costigan, T. , Manz, P. (2003). Assessing the climate of the playground and lunchroom: Complications for bullying prevention programming. School Psychology Review, 32, 418-430. Limber, S. , Small, M. (2003). Laws and policies to address bullying in U. S. schools. School Psychology Review, 32, 445-455. Long, J. D. , Pellegrini, A. D. (2003). Studying change in bullying and dominance with structural equation modeling. School Psychology Review, 32, 401-417. McGee, J. P. , Debernardo, C. R. (1999). The classroom avenger. The Forensic Examiner, 8, 5-6. Nansel, T. R. , Overpeck, M. , Pilla, R. S. , Ruan, W. J. , Simons-Morton, B. , Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among U. S. youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. Journal of the American Medical Association, 285, 2094-2100. National School Safety Crisis Center (2003). Report on school associated violent deaths. Retrieved March 29, 2006, from www. nsscl. org Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell. Olweus, D. (2001). Peer harassment: A critical analysis and some important issues. In J. Juvonen S. Graham (Eds. ), Peer harassment in school: The plight of the vulnerable and victimized (pp. 3-20). New York: Guilford. Orpinas, P. , Home, A. M. , Staniszewski, D. (2003). School bullying: Changing the problem by changing the school. School Psychology Review, 32, 431-444. OÃ¢â¬â¢Toole, M. E. (2000). The school shooter: A threat assessment perspective. Quantico, VA: National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime, Federal Bureau of Investigation. Reddy, M. , Borum, R. , Berglund, J. , Vossekuil, B. , Fein, R. A. , Modzeleski, W. (2001). Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches. Psychology in the Schools, 38, 157-172. Rigby, K. (in press). What it takes to stop bullying in schools: An examination of the rationale and effectiveness of school-based interventions. In M. J. Furlong, M. P. Bates, D. C. Smith, P. Kingery (Eds. ), Appraisal and prediction of school violence: Methods, issues, and contexts. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. Rodkin, P. , Hodges, E. (2003). Bullies and victims in the classroom ecology: Four questions for school ser vice providers and social development research. School Psychology Review, 32, 384-400. Smith, P. K. , Cowie, H. , Olafsson, R. E, Liefooghe, A. P. D. , Almeida, A. , Araki, H. , del Barrio, C. , Costabile, A. , Dekleva, B. , Houndoumadi, A. , Kim, K. , Olaffson, R. P. , Ortega, R. , Pain, J. , Pateraki, L. , Schafer, M. , Singer, M. , Smorti, A. , Toda, Y. , Tomasson, H. , Wenxin, Z. (2002). Definitions of bullying: A comparison of terms used, and age and gender differences, in a fourteen-country international comparison. Child Development, 73, 1119-1133. Solberg, M. E. , Olweus, D. (2003). Prevalence estimation of school bullying with the Olweus bul How to cite Bullying in School, Papers Bullying in School Free Essays Bullying should be a crime. It is very cruel and unethical. Ã¢â¬Å"Each day an estimated 160,000 students miss school for fear of being bullied and 10 percent of students who drop out do so because of repeated bullyingÃ¢â¬ (Dalton 1). We will write a custom essay sample on Bullying in School or any similar topic only for you Order Now The way it makes children feel isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fair. Imagine that happening to yourself. Bullying in schools presents problems to every age group therefore there should be more bullying prevention programs to help get rid of the problem. Younger age Bullying is a topic that needs to be talked about. Younger age is defined from kindergarten to seventh grade. Children bully because they feel they need to overpower people. They also bully because they think they are better than others or some people just have a low self-esteem. When Younger kids bully it is normally name calling, teasing, or making fun of them by the way they look, speak, or even how smart they are! Older age bullying is another one of my topics. Older age bullying is defined from the grades of eighth to a senior in high school. People in the Older age group bully for mainly the same reasons. When older people normally bully, it is a lot more sever then younger age bullying. Ã¢â¬Å"Although most victims of bullying in schools are too meek to take matter into their own hands, a few of them can be pushed to certain critical limits. 60% of identified bullies during their grade 6-9 years eventually got involved in at least one criminal conviction by age 24. Ã¢â¬ Bullying in Schools (1). Older age bullying normally ends up violent and is a lot more severe then younger age bullying. They get into fights or harassment is filed, these are the main things that happen. People will take all of someones strength and will and harass or fight them just to make them feel better about themselves. This is bad because the children who are being bullied do not deserve what they are getting. Nobody deserves to be harassed and manipulated for no reason or any reason. Most of the time, the people that are being bullied, it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t their fault at all. Prevention is another area of concern. According to the online article, Ã¢â¬Å"Bullying Academy,Ã¢â¬ every school needs a anti-bully website for students, educators, and parents. This world needs to realize what is going on with bullying in schools and take action(1). Every school should have monitors of bullying throughout the halls and classrooms all day long. This is just one thing you could do to prevent bullying. There are many things that you could do, depending on what one your school board would like the most. Every city or town should take money from their funds and put it into schools and bullying prevention programs. According to the online article Ã¢â¬Å"Caring School Community,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"prevention focuses on strengthening studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ connectedness to schoolÃ¢â¬âan important element for increasing academic motivation and achievement and for reducing drug use, violence, and delinquency. Ã¢â¬ Every school should have a bullying prevention program, where parents and students could come and learn about bullying. These programs could also talk about how it affects people. They should give statistics about what people who bully end up doing in their lives and what people that donÃ¢â¬â¢t bully end up doing in their lives. I also think we are making important progress towards discovering how successful anti-bullying programs can beÃ¢â¬ (Dr. Ken 1). Bullying in schools is wrong and we should have more bullying prevention programs. My main point in writing this paper is to inform people that bullying is wrong. Also I wish that everyone be more aware about the situation, and donÃ¢â¬â ¢t deny it because it is happening whether you would like to admit it or not. People need to stand up and take charge and make a change in peoples lives. People who are being bullied would love if you took a couple hours of your week just to help them get over the struggles in life. How to cite Bullying in School, Papers
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Shinto and Hinduism Ethical Traditions Essay A common denominator in all if not most of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s religions is the quantifier of an overarching ethical system, or singular belief that can summarize what a religion teaches. It is this ethos that is the underlying system of teaching practitioners the values of right and wrong, as well as how to discern between behaviors of the two.Theologists may often quote a parable like the Golden Rule, where the distinctive message is Ã¢â¬Å"treat others as you would like to be treatedÃ¢â¬ and within the scriptures and practices of Hinduism and Shinto, there can be seen this common denominator. Whilst these two particular religions share common practices and beliefs, they are equally diverse and pragmatic in their value system. Both have origins rich in history and transformation through the centuries, however, each also remain loyal to their original ethics.Alongside Christianity, Islam and Buddhism, Hinduism is one of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s most practiced religions, whilst Shinto ha s taken its roots from its Buddhism cousin. It is perhaps significant that both religions have a parallel existence with Buddhism, and share some commonalities with the practice. Despite this, Shinto and Hinduism differ in their views of death and the afterlife, as well as the motive we may adopt to our here and now. Where one speaks of reincarnation and using compassion to guide our present life; the other speaks of being only within the present and appeasing those spiritual influences which may affect it. As we examine the ethics behind these two religions, we will understand the importance Ã¢â¬ËdeathÃ¢â¬â¢ plays in their contrasting features.The complexities of Hinduism are highlighted by its pantheon. Ã¢â¬Å"Hinduism is the worlds third largest religion, involving one in every seven human beings. Unique among all major religions in that it does not proselytize, Hinduism also does not profess one right way, one set of beliefs, or one correct system of ethicsÃ¢â¬ (Huyler, 2 001). It is a religion which is arguably monotheist and polytheist at the same time. Many refer to it as henotheistic Ã¢â¬â or one that believes in a singular God, but many deities are accepted as well. It is this pantheon which governs many tangible aspects of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life Ã¢â¬â such as wealth, health, power and education. Hindus believe in ritual and festivals honoring some of these deities, but in essence it is the celebrating of the two halves Ã¢â¬â light and dark, male and female Ã¢â¬â which is the root of these practices:Ã¢â¬Å"The combination of male and female energies in one goddess or god also is common in Hindu religion and is referred to as Ardhanareeshwarar. The complementary nature of the two energies is valued in Hindu society and is deemed essential for achieving balance within the gods and within mortalsÃ¢â¬ (Polisi, 2004).From morning rituals, to festivals such as Diwali and Holi, Hindus celebrate the divine through this co-existence and e quality, in a country where Ã¢â¬Å"countless millions pray to the rising sun, considered masculine, while standing in or pouring water, viewed as feminine. In acknowledging the two, they also acknowledge the One, for in Hinduism the supreme deity is the absolute complement of oppositesdark and light, wrong and right, good and evil. By beginning each day in such ways, Hindus attune themselves with the universe and validate their place within itÃ¢â¬ (Huyler).Aside from this acknowledgement of light and dark, there are three basic beliefs, or laws to Hinduism: Dharma, Karma and Samsara. There are many others, but it is the fundamentals of these particular three which lie at the basis of the ethics of Hinduism, and play a significant contrast to those of Shinto. In its simplest terms, Dharma is the act of following oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty or destiny in life. How we go about this, by our actions and their consequences are reflected in Karma; whilst the cycle of life and death, or reincarnat ion, which this might procure is our Samsara. If someone has lived a bad life, or one filled with negative actions, then they are believed to reincarnate as something lower Ã¢â¬â like an insect or beast Ã¢â¬â as punishment. (Current, 2003). Hindus believe in the existence of the soul, and it is this that moves from one lifetime to another:;Ã¢â¬Å"The outer or gross body (skin, bones, muscles, nervous system, and brain) is said to fall away. The subtle body sheath (composed of karmic tendencies, knowledge, breath, and mind) that coats the jiva, or psychic substratum, also begins to disappear. After death the jiva initially remains within or near the body before it completely departs from the body to eventually enter an otherworldly reality conditioned by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s susceptibility to earthly sensual cravings. When these cravings have ceased, the jiva enters a temporally blissful existence until, at a karmically determined time, it takes on a new physical body and is reborn.Ã¢â ¬ (Kramer, 2003).;The ultimate destination in this cycle of reincarnation is a final unity with the Supreme Being, or the god Brahman. Ideally one who wishes to achieve this state must continue a life of good Karma in order to continue reincarnating up the ladder, rather than down it. It could be argued that this belief is similar to the Shinto belief of living in the present, but in contrast, Shinto do not believe in reincarnation, nor reflect too deeply on the afterlife, merely onÃ the existence of the soul.Shinto was once considered the state religion of Japan, until after World War II when it was Ã¢â¬ËdowngradedÃ¢â¬â¢ to a popular religion. The traditions of Shinto remain evident in Japanese culture, however, with many festivals, holidays and rituals still revered and celebrated by the population. Unlike Hinduism, Shinto beliefs surround not a singular God or pantheon, but are more centered towards the soul, or animism. Practitioners concentrate not on living a doctrin e for a better afterlife, but rather on one that rewards in the present and current life.Without a set dogma, Shinto has picked up concepts over the centuries from neighboring religions, including Buddhism, and as evolved into a set of rituals and ideals that holds nature at its highest accord and able to affect kami, or spirit as equally as a person or emotion. Shintoists do not outwardly profess their beliefs, but rather live by their creed. Rituals often blend nature and kami together, as is described of the festival of Kangensai, or wind and string instruments:Ã¢â¬Å"This festival is an uncanny blend of boldness and grace, nonchalance and rigour. At its heart stands the image of a shogun at the height of his power, faced with a fading destiny and the yearning to perpetuate the golden age of the Heian.Ã¢â¬ (Takenishi, 2001).As Hindus believe in Karma and living through compassion and good actions, Shintoists hold purification and purity in the same light. There are elaborate r ituals and rites governing purification, some involving holidays and certain kami, whilst others are as simply adopted in daily meditations and rites. The concept is the same, however, in that to be cleansed of negativity and impurities, is to give way to positive influences in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life:Ã¢â¬Å"No moral notion of sin exists in Shinto. Death is not the Ã¢â¬Å"wages of sinÃ¢â¬ , that is, the outcome of evil-doing. Rather, because purity is valued above all else, evil is defined as that which is Ã¢â¬Å"pollutionÃ¢â¬ . The primary pollutions are sickness, blood, and deathÃ¢â¬ (Horton, 2003).Theologists will argue that Shinto and Buddhism are strongly weaved together with many beliefs being shared or adopted by one or the other. Japanese society does not try to untangle the two, as one may distinguish between sects of Christianity instead; Japanese culture passively adopts rituals and practices of each. It is this peaceful combination which is similar to Hindus belief that no religion is or can be considered wrong or incorrect, but rather to be accepting of all belief systems and deities.Since Shintoists do not believe in an afterlife, or actively have a dogma which has a pronounced ritual of death, it is not uncommon to see the deceased become kami, or be revered as kami. Ã¢â¬Å"Occasionally deceased people have become kami, when the deceased were thought to be angry with the living or because of the circumstances surrounding their deathsÃ¢â¬ (Horton). Such examples include a political activist who was exiled, then later Ã¢â¬ËpacifiedÃ¢â¬â¢ with a shrine because of his association with natural disasters occurring in Japan.Perhaps the significant difference between Hinduism and Shinto lies in the power the afterlife has in a practitionerÃ¢â¬â¢s daily life. Where Hindus live this life in good faith and strive to have good Karma in order to reincarnate favorably, Shintoists work and acknowledge the influence of kami on this lifetime and to aff ect their current life, instead of one they have no surety of knowing exists. Despite the belief in reincarnation, the affect Karma has on a HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s life results in the same as a Shintoist. Both strive to lead good lives, or follow their Dharma Ã¢â¬â arguably this means both will act with good intentions and compassion if for different reasoning. Neither will condone violence as a means to a good life, and in both, there is a moral objective to retain a set of principles that involve compassion and tolerance.It is perhaps notable that both religions are not strictly monotheist, and this could be a factor in their passive natures, yet violence has been an inherent part of their histories. It has been suggested that Ã¢â¬Å"for believers these wars are situational moments of divine-human cooperation, a type of sacramental action performed in accordance with transcendent goals and in the service of justice, peace, and human redemptionÃ¢â¬ (Burns, 2006). In modern times, bot h Hinduism and Shinto have shown more compassionate faces when it comes to religious tolerance, yet in Japan in particular, there is a collision of state and belief, as many would like to return to a greater emphasis of the Emperor within Shinto customs, rather than the passive nature the religion has reverted to in recent centuries. Shinto in particular has grown into various sects, whilst Hinduism remains effectively the same Ã¢â¬â despite development of dogma over the centuries. Both religions however have a strong tie in Buddhism, sharing similarities or histories. The Hindu concept of Samsara is evident in Buddhism; and Shinto was greatly influenced by the emergence of Buddhism in Japanese society.Religion is predominantly finding and adhering to beliefs which better oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, and follow a dogma we can agree with. From a Jungian perspective, Ã¢â¬Å"it is rather the sum total of conscious and unconscious existence, or the God within us. To assert that one knows God a nd that this knowledge is absolute and objective is to identify with ones subjective experienceÃ¢â¬ (Burns). Ã Through meditation and ritual, and their reverence of Kami and nature, Shintoists are able to acknowledge their self. Hindus, in turn, utilize a dogma where there Dharma and how they achieve it is how they inadvertently assert the Ã¢â¬ËGod withinÃ¢â¬â¢. Both are religions which look to how action affects life and how one conducts themselves, rather than teaching through fear and parables of the past as are seen in other religions. The commonality of these religions is that they echo what Jung believed was the path needed for mankind to achieve a higher level of consciousness:Ã¢â¬Å"Jungs words, written more than fifty years ago, speak prophetically across the decades: The only thing that really matters now is whether [humanity] can climb up to a higher moral level, to a higher plane of consciousness, in order to be equal to the superhuman powers which the fallen an gels have played into [our] hands.Ã¢â¬ (Burns).Despite their fundamental differences, Hinduism and Shinto are religions who share an ethical centerpiece in Buddhism, and the simple belief that good action, will affect greater than causing harm, or ill-will.In examining the background and winding histories of these two religions, it is easy to see how they share a common creed in Ã¢â¬Å"do unto others as you would have done to you.Ã¢â¬ Shintoists do not hold it in high regard to take anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s life, whilst Hindus believe in Karma affecting their journey to transcendence. Whilst both share ties with Buddhism, Hindus believe in a structured pantheon as well as one God being overruling all. They are accepting of other belief systems, and prefer to believe in the affects of both masculine and feminine, rather than just a singular composite having more power in the universe than another. Shintoists also believe in such a dogma, except they see the relevance of purity and impur ity affecting the kami, or spirit, rather than both having a place in this world. Purity and cleansing rituals have a deep root in Shinto rites and impurities such as pollution, sickness and decay are things which are unwanted and of negative influence. These negative influences, in turn need to be affected or the associated kami appeased, in order for them to go away.Religion is a personal concept and one that also creates divides, as equally as it breaks down barriers. Religious ethics often follow a similar vein when it comes to how one should lead their life Ã¢â¬â regardless of a belief in the afterlife or not. Despite their contradictions to one another in concepts of reincarnation and acknowledgement of masculine-feminine opposites sharing a place in life, Hinduism and Shinto beliefs still share common ideals in how to conduct oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life, as well as how to achieve final transcendence.;
Thursday, March 19, 2020
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